The term philosophy originally meant the love of wisdom or knowledge. The term is generally used to describe oneís worldview or outlook on life. Metaphysical philosophy "deals with first principles and seeks to explain the nature of being or reality (ontology) and of the origin and structure of the world (cosmology): it is closely associated with a theory of knowledge (epistemology)" [Webster].

Modern Humanism

Biblical Christianity

Epistemology ,
i.e., theory of knowledge)

Limited by naturalism, materialism, rationalism, and scientism.

Based upon supernaturalism, i.e., both natural and divine revelation.

i.e. nature of being or reality)

Naturalism contends that nature is all there is; hence, no supernatural things.

Materialism, being an extension of naturalism, contends that matter is all there is; hence, no spiritual realities.

Rationalism contends that reality can be known only by reason; hence, no revelation.

Scientism, an extension of rationalism, asserts that beliefs must be scientifically verifiable. Since super-natural beliefs are not, then all super-natural beliefs are considered invalid.

Natural science argues for existence of God.
1. 2nd law of thermodynamics.
2. Impossibility of spontaneous generation.
3. DNA - genetic information.
4. Anthropic principle.

Reason argues for existence of God..

Ontological argument: Asserts that the perfect being, as conceived by man, must actually exist.

Teleological Argument: Reasons from design in the physical universe to a cosmic Designer/Creator.

Divine revelation argues for existence of God
(John 1:1-4 is but one example.)

1. Mind was before matter;
2. God came before man;
3. Plan and design was before creation;
4. Life comes from life; &
5. Enlightenment comes from Light.

i.e. origin and structure of the world.)

Naturalism, by rejecting God, discards idea of creation and contends for evolutionary origins.

Materialism, by rejecting spiritual and eternal realities, denies the existence of heaven and hell.

Rationalism, by accepting only reason as the means for acquiring knowledge, declares that only natural and material things exist.

Scientism, by requiring empirical evidence as basis for proof, demands the monistic view of man.

Supernaturalism, accepts Biblical idea of creation, miracles, Godís intervention in history, etc.

Cosmological argument: Distinguishes between necessary and contingent beings, and asserts that God is the necessary being which explains the existence of all other contingent beings.

Dualistic view of man is acknowledged. Man has a soul, is a sinner, and needs salvation.

Epistemology, ontology, and cosmology are ...

Inconsistent, since naturalism, materialism, rationalism, and scientism are not themselves scientifically provable!

Consistent. The scientific method is itself a result of Christian philosophy.

(© Copyright - Chart by Robert L. Waggoner, Revised 04/19/96)